Do I need a tetanus jab (vaccine) after an accident or injury?
You may need a tetanus jab if the injury has broken your skin and your tetanus vaccinations aren't up-to-date.
Tetanus is a serious but rare condition that can be fatal if untreated.
The bacteria that can cause tetanus can enter your body through a wound or cut in your skin. They're often found in soil and manure.
When to seek medical advice
You should contact your Doctor or nearest medical facility if you're concerned about a wound, particularly if:
- the wound is deep
- the wound contains dirt or a foreign object
- you haven't been fully vaccinated against tetanus
- you're not sure whether you have been fully vaccinated against tetanus
Your Doctor can assess the wound and decide if you need a vaccination or any other treatment.
You may need additional treatment for a serious or dirty wound that's considered to be tetanus-prone.
You should immediately go to your nearest Hospital or call your local emergency services for an ambulance if you develop severe muscle stiffness or spasms.
Tetanus vaccination programme
A full course of tetanus vaccination consists of 5 doses of the vaccine.
This should be enough to give you long-term protection from tetanus.
But if you're not sure how many doses you have received, you may need a booster dose after an injury that breaks your skin.
If you have definitely received 5 doses of the tetanus vaccine, you're fully vaccinated and don't need a booster dose.
Treatment with tetanus immunoglobin
If you have a tetanus-prone wound, additional treatment may be given, even if you have been fully vaccinated.
General Health Guidelines defines tetanus-prone wounds as:
- wounds or burns that need surgery, but where surgery can't be performed within 24 hours
- wounds or burns where a significant amount of tissue has been removed, or puncture-type injuries such as animal bites, particularly if they have had contact with soil or manure
- wounds containing any substance that shouldn't be there, such as dust or dirt (foreign bodies)
- serious fractures where the bone is exposed and prone to infection (compound fractures)
- wounds and burns in people who have systemic sepsis, a fall in blood pressure resulting from a serious bacterial infection
If you have a tetanus-prone wound and it's considered to be high risk, treatment with tetanus immunoglobulin (TIG) is recommended.
TIG is a solution that contains infection-fighting cells (antibodies) that kill the tetanus bacteria.
You'll need TIG even if you're fully vaccinated against tetanus.