Cancer is a condition where cells in a specific part of the body grow and reproduce uncontrollably. The cancerous cells can invade and destroy surrounding healthy tissue, including organs.

Cancer sometimes begins in one part of the body before spreading to other areas. This process is known as metastasis.

1 in 2 people will develop some form of cancer during their lifetime. In the UK, the 4 most common types of cancer are:

There are more than 200 different types of cancer, and each is diagnosed and treated in a particular way. You can find links on this page to information about other types of cancer.

Get the flu vaccine

Flu can be very serious if you have cancer. Ask for your free flu jab at:

  • your GP surgery
  • a local pharmacy that has a flu vaccine service

Find out more about the flu vaccine

Coronavirus advice

Your care team will talk to you about the benefits and risks of starting or continuing cancer treatment at the moment.

Get advice about coronavirus and cancer:

Spotting signs of cancer

Changes to your body's normal processes or unusual, unexplained symptoms can sometimes be an early sign of cancer.

Symptoms that need to be checked by a doctor include:

  • a lump that suddenly appears on your body
  • unexplained bleeding
  • changes to your bowel habits

But in many cases your symptoms will not be related to cancer and will be caused by other, non-cancerous health conditions.

Read more about the signs and symptoms of cancer.

Coronavirus update

It's important to get help from a GP if you have symptoms that you're worried about.

Find out about using the NHS during coronavirus

Reducing your risk of cancer

Making some simple changes to your lifestyle can significantly reduce your risk of developing cancer.

For example:

The Macmillan Cancer Support website has more information about how a healthy lifestyle can help reduce your chances of developing cancer.

Cancer treatment

Surgery is the first treatment to try for most types of cancer, as solid tumours can usually be surgically removed.

2 other commonly used treatment methods are:

Waiting times

Accurately diagnosing cancer can take weeks or months. As cancer often develops slowly over several years, waiting for a few weeks will not usually impact on the effectiveness of treatment.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has produced referral guidelines for suspected cancer.

You should not have to wait more than 2 weeks to see a specialist if your GP suspects you have cancer and urgently refers you.

In cases where cancer has been confirmed, you should not have to wait more than 31 days from the decision to treat to the start of treatment.

Cancer services

Find local cancer support services

Find specialist cancer hospitals

Find cancer support services for women

Other cancer pages

The Health A-Z covers many different types of cancer:

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

Acute myeloid leukaemia

Anal cancer

Bile duct cancer

Bladder cancer

Bone cancer

Bowel cancer

Brain tumour (high-grade)

Brain tumour (low-grade/mixed)

Breast cancer (female)

Breast cancer (male)

Carcinoid tumours

Cervical cancer

Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia

Chronic myeloid leukaemia

Endometrial cancer

Ewing sarcoma

Eye cancer

Gallbladder cancer 

Hairy cell leukaemia

Head and neck cancer

Hodgkin lymphoma

Kaposi's sarcoma

Kidney cancer

Laryngeal cancer

Liver cancer

Lung cancer


Mouth cancer

Multiple myeloma

Nasopharyngeal cancer

Neuroendocrine tumours

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Nose and sinus cancer

Oesophageal cancer

Ovarian cancer

Pancreatic cancer

Penile cancer

Prostate cancer

Rectal cancer


Skin cancer (malignant melanoma)

Skin cancer (non-melanoma)

Soft tissue sarcoma

Stomach cancer

Testicular cancer

Thyroid cancer

Uterine cancer

Vaginal cancer

Vulval cancer

Social care and support guide

If you:

  • need help with day-to-day living because of illness or disability
  • care for someone regularly because they're ill, elderly or disabled – including family members

Our guide to care and support explains your options and where you can get support.