- Food and diet
- Eating a balanced diet
- 8 tips for healthy eating
- The Eatwell Guide
- Food labels
- Food labelling terms
- Reference intakes on food labels
- Starchy foods and carbohydrates
- Dairy and alternatives
- Meat in your diet
- Fish and shellfish
- The healthy way to eat eggs
- Beans and pulses
- Water, drinks and your health
- Eating processed foods
- Why 5 A Day?
- What counts?
- 5 A Day portion sizes
- 5 A Day tips
- 5 A Day FAQs
- Fat: the facts
- Salt: the facts
- Sugar: the facts
- Top sources of added sugar
- What does 100 calories look like?
- Red meat and the risk of bowel cancer
- What is a Mediterranean diet?
- 20 tips to eat well for less
- How to prepare and cook food safely
- How to store food and leftovers
- 10 ways to prevent food poisoning
- Why you should never wash raw chicken
- Cooking turkey
- How to wash fruit and vegetables
- The truth about sweeteners
- Sprouted seeds safety advice
- The vegetarian diet
- The vegan diet
- Vegetarian and vegan mums-to-be
- Vegetarian and vegan diets Q&A
- Recipes and tips
- Healthy breakfasts
- Surprising 100-calorie snacks
- 8 healthy eating tips
- How to eat more fibre
- Healthy food swaps
- Healthy breakfast cereals
- How to eat less saturated fat
- Tips for a lower salt diet
- How to cut down on sugar
- Healthier takeaways
- Food and drinks for sport
- Healthy eating for teens
- Digestive health
Vegetarian and vegan mums-to-be
Eating healthily during pregnancy is important for your own health and the health of your developing baby.
It's important to eat a varied and balanced diet during pregnancy to provide enough nutrients for you and the development and growth of your baby.
Vegetarian and vegan mums-to-be need to make sure they get enough iron and vitamin B12, which are mainly found in meat and fish, and vitamin D.
Iron in your diet
Good sources of iron for vegetarians and vegans are:
Vitamin B12 in your diet
Good sources of vitamin B12 for vegetarians are:
- milk and cheese (choose lower fat varieties where possible)
Good sources for vegetarians and vegans are:
- fortified breakfast cereals (choose lower sugar options where possible)
- fortified unsweetened soya drinks
- yeast extract, such as Marmite
As sources for vegans are limited, a vitamin B12 supplement may also be needed.
Vitamin D in your diet
Although we get vitamin D from sunlight, vegetarian food sources include:
- egg yolk
- foods fortified with vitamin D, including some breakfast cereals and most fat spreads
- dietary supplements
Because vitamin D is found only in a small number of foods, it might be difficult to get enough from foods that naturally contain vitamin D and fortified foods alone.
So all adults, including pregnant and breastfeeding women, should consider taking a daily supplement containing 10 micrograms of vitamin D, particularly during the winter months (October until the end of March).
Vegans will need to read the label to ensure that the vitamin D used in a product isn't of animal origin.
From late March/early April until the end of September, most people should be able to get enough vitamin D from sunlight.
Calcium in your diet
If you're a vegan, you also need to make sure you get enough calcium. This is because non-vegans get most of their calcium from dairy foods.
Good sources of calcium for vegans include:
- dark green leafy vegetables
- fortified unsweetened soya, rice and oat drinks
- brown and white bread
- calcium-set tofu
- sesame seeds and tahini
- dried fruit
Talk to your midwife or doctor about how you can get all the nutrients you need for you and your baby.
Foods to avoid when pregnant
All pregnant women, regardless of their diet, are advised not to eat mould-ripened soft cheese (such as brie or camembert) and soft blue-veined cheese (such as roquefort or Danish blue).
These cheeses could contain listeria, which can cause miscarriage, stillbirth or serious illness in newborn babies.
If you're pregnant, you shouldn't eat pâté, including vegetarian pâté, which can also contain listeria.
Some vegetarian pâté contains raw eggs, which may carry a risk of salmonella infection.
You also shouldn't eat raw or partially cooked hen eggs, unless they have the British Lion Code of Practice stamp.
Read more about foods to avoid in pregnancy.
Breastfeeding on a vegan diet
If you have been taking vitamin B12 and vitamin D supplements as part of your vegan diet, continue taking them while you're breastfeeding.
You should be able to get all the other vitamins and minerals you need by eating a varied and balanced diet.
Vitamins for babies
From birth, breastfed babies should be given a daily supplement containing 8.5 to 10 micrograms (mcg) of vitamin D.
If you're feeding your baby with more than 500ml (about a pint) of infant formula a day, they don't need a vitamin D supplement because infant formula is fortified with vitamin D.
Daily vitamin A, C and D supplements are recommended for infants from the age of 6 months until 5 years of age (unless they're having more than 500ml of infant formula a day).
In some areas, vitamin drops are available for free as part of the Healthy Start scheme. Check with your health visitor to see whether they're available in your area.
A single-dose vitamin supplement containing the recommended daily intake of vitamins A, C and D is also available to buy from pharmacies.
Protection from illness and infection
Feeding your baby breast milk only until they're around 6 months old will help protect them from illness and infection.
Babies who aren't breastfed are more likely to get diarrhoea, vomiting and respiratory infections.
For mothers, breastfeeding decreases the risk of breast cancer and may also offer some protection against ovarian cancer.
Breast milk should continue to be given alongside an increasingly varied diet once your baby is introduced to solid foods.
For vegan mothers who aren't breastfeeding, soya infant formula is the only alternative to cows' milk formula.
Get advice from your midwife, health visitor or GP before using soya infant formula.
Find out more about the benefits of breastfeeding, or get support with breastfeeding.